The late 1970s marked the beginnings of the animal rights movement, which portrayed the belief that animals must be recognised as sentient beings and protected from unessential harm.
However, both are fundamental theories that contribute to animal ethics. Firstly, the original rise of animal ethics and how animals should be treated. Animals have intrinsic values that must be respected. Animal Rights. 2003. 2001.
This theory opposes utilitarianism in the sense that instead of concerning itself with the consequence, it focuses on the duty. Founded in 1980, PETA works through public education, research, celebrity involvement, legislation, etc to protect the rights of all animals. However, a flaw is that people's opinions of a virtuous person are very subjective, and thus, can drastically affect the person's moral compass. Please enter your username or email address to reset your password.  In addition, the deaths of these animals are considered sickening; from inhaling toxic gas, having skin burned off, getting holes drilled into their skulls. Differing conceptions of the treatment of and duties towards animals, particularly those living in the wild, within animal ethics and environmental ethics have been a source of conflict between the two ethical positions; some philosophers have made a case that the two positions are incompatible, while others have argued that such disagreements can be overcome. For the past three centuries, much debate over the humanness of animals has taken place amongst philosophers. For whatever reason, you are now asking the question: Why should animals have rights?” READ MORE — Ingrid E. Newkirk, PETA President and co-author of Animalkind. "Animals and ethics." Animals can feel pain and their interests must be taken into consideration.
The use of the term in recent years has been expanded to include all experimentation on living animals, rather than just dissection alone (Anwer.com). In 1635, Ireland was the first country to pass animal protection legislation, "An Act against Plowing by the Tayle, and pulling the Wooll off living Sheep". The Humane Society of the United States. If the action would stem from someone virtuous, it is said that it is morally right, and if from a vicious person, immoral behaviour. In 1822, the British Parliament passed the Cruel Treatment of Cattle Act. He supported the theory of utilitarianism, which is still a controversial but highly regarded foundation for animal research.
(Wikipedia) Much of the modern debate has been penned into ground-breaking and highly influential books as the advocates of the movement shifted from philosophers to include theologians, academic and professional groups, veterinarians, psychologists, psychiatrists, pathologists and former vivisectionists. Sunstein, Cass R. and Nussbaum, Martha (eds). With this underlying issue, this ethical theory cannot be applied to all cases.
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